Slavery Advertisements Published July 7, 1768

The Slavery Adverts 250 Project chronicles the role of newspaper advertising in perpetuating slavery in the era of the American Revolution. The project seeks to reveal the ubiquity of slavery in eighteenth-century life from New England to Georgia by republishing advertisements for slaves – for sale, wanted to purchase, runaways, captured fugitives – in daily digests on this site as well as in real time via the @SlaveAdverts250 Twitter feed, utilizing twenty-first-century media to stand in for the print media of the eighteenth century.

The project aims to provide modern audiences with a sense of just how often colonists encountered these advertisements in their daily lives. Enslaved men, women, and children appeared in print somewhere in the colonies almost every single day. Those advertisements served as a constant backdrop for social, cultural, economic, and political life in colonial and revolutionary America. Colonists who did not own slaves were still confronted with slavery as well as invited to maintain the system by purchasing slaves or assisting in the capture of runaways. The frequency of these newspaper advertisements suggests just how embedded slavery was in colonial and revolutionary American culture in everyday interactions beyond the printed page.

These advertisements also testify to the experiences of enslaved men, women, and children, though readers must consider that those experiences have been remediated through descriptions offered by slaveholders rather than the slaves themselves. Often unnamed in the advertisements, enslaved men, women, and children were not invisible or unimportant in early America.

These advertisements appeared in colonial American newspapers 250 years ago today.

Jul 7 - New-York Journal Slavery 1
New-York Journal (July 7, 1768).

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Jul 7 - Pennsylvania Gazette Slavery 1
Pennsylvania Gazette (July 7, 1768).

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Jul 7 - Pennsylvania Gazette Slavery 2
Pennsylvania Gazette (July 7, 1768).

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Jul 7 - Pennsylvania Gazette Slavery 3
Pennsylvania Gazette (July 7, 1768).

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Jul 7 - Pennsylvania Gazette Supplement Slavery 1
Supplement to the Pennsylvania Gazette (July 7, 1768).

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Jul 7 - Pennsylvania Gazette Supplement Slavery 2
Supplement to the Pennsylvania Gazette (July 7, 1768).

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Jul 7 - Pennsylvania Journal Supplement Slavery 1
Supplement to the Pennsylvania Journal (July 7, 1768).

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Jul 7 - Virginia Gazette Purdie and Dixon Slavery 1
Virginia Gazette [Purdie & Dixon] (July 7, 1768).

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Jul 7 - Virginia Gazette Purdie and Dixon Slavery 2
Virginia Gazette [Purdie & Dixon] (July 7, 1768).

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Jul 7 - Virginia Gazette Purdie and Dixon Slavery 3
Virginia Gazette [Purdie & Dixon] (July 7, 1768).

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Jul 7 - Virginia Gazette Purdie and Dixon Slavery 4
Virginia Gazette [Purdie & Dixon] (July 7, 1768).

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Jul 7 - Virginia Gazette Purdie and Dixon Slavery 5
Virginia Gazette [Purdie & Dixon] (July 7, 1768).

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Jul 7 - Virginia Gazette Purdie and Dixon Slavery 6
Virginia Gazette [Purdie & Dixon] (July 7, 1768).

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Jul 7 - Virginia Gazette Purdie and Dixon Slavery 7
Virginia Gazette [Purdie & Dixon] (July 7, 1768).

Slavery Advertisements Published July 6, 1768

The Slavery Adverts 250 Project chronicles the role of newspaper advertising in perpetuating slavery in the era of the American Revolution. The project seeks to reveal the ubiquity of slavery in eighteenth-century life from New England to Georgia by republishing advertisements for slaves – for sale, wanted to purchase, runaways, captured fugitives – in daily digests on this site as well as in real time via the @SlaveAdverts250 Twitter feed, utilizing twenty-first-century media to stand in for the print media of the eighteenth century.

The project aims to provide modern audiences with a sense of just how often colonists encountered these advertisements in their daily lives. Enslaved men, women, and children appeared in print somewhere in the colonies almost every single day. Those advertisements served as a constant backdrop for social, cultural, economic, and political life in colonial and revolutionary America. Colonists who did not own slaves were still confronted with slavery as well as invited to maintain the system by purchasing slaves or assisting in the capture of runaways. The frequency of these newspaper advertisements suggests just how embedded slavery was in colonial and revolutionary American culture in everyday interactions beyond the printed page.

These advertisements also testify to the experiences of enslaved men, women, and children, though readers must consider that those experiences have been remediated through descriptions offered by slaveholders rather than the slaves themselves. Often unnamed in the advertisements, enslaved men, women, and children were not invisible or unimportant in early America.

These advertisements appeared in colonial American newspapers 250 years ago today.

Jul 6 - Georgia Gazette Slavery 1
Georgia Gazette (July 6, 1768).

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Jul 6 - Georgia Gazette Slavery 2
Georgia Gazette (July 6, 1768).

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Jul 6 - Georgia Gazette Slavery 3
Georgia Gazette (July 6, 1768).

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Jul 6 - Georgia Gazette Slavery 4
Georgia Gazette (July 6, 1768).

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Jul 6 - Georgia Gazette Slavery 5
Georgia Gazette (July 6, 1768).

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Jul 6 - Georgia Gazette Slavery 6
Georgia Gazette (July 6, 1768).

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Jul 6 - Georgia Gazette Slavery 7
Georgia Gazette (July 6, 1768).

Slavery Advertisements Published June 30, 1768

The Slavery Adverts 250 Project chronicles the role of newspaper advertising in perpetuating slavery in the era of the American Revolution. The project seeks to reveal the ubiquity of slavery in eighteenth-century life from New England to Georgia by republishing advertisements for slaves – for sale, wanted to purchase, runaways, captured fugitives – in daily digests on this site as well as in real time via the @SlaveAdverts250 Twitter feed, utilizing twenty-first-century media to stand in for the print media of the eighteenth century.

The project aims to provide modern audiences with a sense of just how often colonists encountered these advertisements in their daily lives. Enslaved men, women, and children appeared in print somewhere in the colonies almost every single day. Those advertisements served as a constant backdrop for social, cultural, economic, and political life in colonial and revolutionary America. Colonists who did not own slaves were still confronted with slavery as well as invited to maintain the system by purchasing slaves or assisting in the capture of runaways. The frequency of these newspaper advertisements suggests just how embedded slavery was in colonial and revolutionary American culture in everyday interactions beyond the printed page.

These advertisements also testify to the experiences of enslaved men, women, and children, though readers must consider that those experiences have been remediated through descriptions offered by slaveholders rather than the slaves themselves. Often unnamed in the advertisements, enslaved men, women, and children were not invisible or unimportant in early America.

These advertisements appeared in colonial American newspapers 250 years ago today.

Jun 30 - Boston Weekly News-Letter Postscript Slavery 1
Postscript to the Boston Weekly News-Letter (June 30, 1768).

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Jun 30 - Massachusetts Gazette Draper Slavery 1
Massachusetts Gazette [Draper] (June 30, 1768).

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Jun 30 - New-York Journal Slavery 1
New-York Journal (June 30, 1768).

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Jun 30 - New-York Journal Slavery 2
New-York Journal (June 30, 1768).

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Jun 30 - New-York Journal Supplement Slavery 1
Supplement to the New-York Journal (June 30, 1768).

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Jun 30 - Pennsylvania Gazette Slavery 1
Pennsylvania Gazette (June 30, 1768).

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Jun 30 - Pennsylvania Gazette Slavery 2
Pennsylvania Gazette (June 30, 1768).

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Jun 30 - Pennsylvania Gazette Slavery 3
Pennsylvania Gazette (June 30, 1768).

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Jun 30 - Pennsylvania Gazette Slavery 4
Pennsylvania Gazette (June 30, 1768).

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Jun 30 - Pennsylvania Gazette Supplement Slavery 1
Supplement to the Pennsylvania Gazette (June 30, 1768).

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Jun 30 - Pennsylvania Gazette Supplement Slavery 2
Supplement to the Pennsylvania Gazette (June 30, 1768).

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Jun 30 - Pennsylvania Gazette Supplement Slavery 3
Supplement to the Pennsylvania Gazette (June 30, 1768).

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Jun 30 - Pennsylvania Gazette Supplement Slavery 4
Supplement to the Pennsylvania Gazette (June 30, 1768).

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Jun 30 - Pennsylvania Journal Slavery 1
Pennsylvania Journal (June 30, 1768).

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Jun 30 - Virginia Gazette Purdie and Dixon Slavery 1
Virginia Gazette [Purdie & Dixon] (June 30, 1768).

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Jun 30 - Virginia Gazette Purdie and Dixon Slavery 2
Virginia Gazette [Purdie & Dixon] (June 30, 1768).

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Jun 30 - Virginia Gazette Purdie and Dixon Slavery 3
Virginia Gazette [Purdie & Dixon] (June 30, 1768).

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Jun 30 - Virginia Gazette Purdie and Dixon Slavery 4
Virginia Gazette [Purdie & Dixon] (June 30, 1768).

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Jun 30 - Virginia Gazette Purdie and Dixon Slavery 5
Virginia Gazette [Purdie & Dixon] (June 30, 1768).

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Jun 30 - Virginia Gazette Purdie and Dixon Slavery 6
Virginia Gazette [Purdie & Dixon] (June 30, 1768).

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Jun 30 - Virginia Gazette Purdie and Dixon Slavery 7
Virginia Gazette [Purdie & Dixon] (June 30, 1768).

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Jun 30 - Virginia Gazette Purdie and Dixon Slavery 8
Virginia Gazette [Purdie & Dixon] (June 30, 1768).

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Jun 30 - Virginia Gazette Purdie and Dixon Slavery 9
Virginia Gazette [Purdie & Dixon] (June 30, 1768).

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Jun 30 - Virginia Gazette Purdie and Dixon Slavery 10
Virginia Gazette [Purdie & Dixon] (June 30, 1768).

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Jun 30 - Virginia Gazette Purdie and Dixon Slavery 11
Virginia Gazette [Purdie & Dixon] (June 30, 1768).

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Jun 30 - Virginia Gazette Rind Slavery 1
Virginia Gazette [Rind] (June 30, 1768).

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Jun 30 - Virginia Gazette Rind Slavery 2
Virginia Gazette [Rind] (June 30, 1768).

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Jun 30 - Virginia Gazette Rind Slavery 3
Virginia Gazette [Rind] (June 30, 1768).

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Jun 30 - Virginia Gazette Rind Slavery 4
Virginia Gazette [Rind] (June 30, 1768).

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Jun 30 - Virginia Gazette Rind Slavery 5
Virginia Gazette [Rind] (June 30, 1768).

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Jun 30 - Virginia Gazette Rind Slavery 6
Virginia Gazette [Rind] (June 30, 1768).

Slavery Advertisements Published June 23, 1768

The Slavery Adverts 250 Project chronicles the role of newspaper advertising in perpetuating slavery in the era of the American Revolution. The project seeks to reveal the ubiquity of slavery in eighteenth-century life from New England to Georgia by republishing advertisements for slaves – for sale, wanted to purchase, runaways, captured fugitives – in daily digests on this site as well as in real time via the @SlaveAdverts250 Twitter feed, utilizing twenty-first-century media to stand in for the print media of the eighteenth century.

The project aims to provide modern audiences with a sense of just how often colonists encountered these advertisements in their daily lives. Enslaved men, women, and children appeared in print somewhere in the colonies almost every single day. Those advertisements served as a constant backdrop for social, cultural, economic, and political life in colonial and revolutionary America. Colonists who did not own slaves were still confronted with slavery as well as invited to maintain the system by purchasing slaves or assisting in the capture of runaways. The frequency of these newspaper advertisements suggests just how embedded slavery was in colonial and revolutionary American culture in everyday interactions beyond the printed page.

These advertisements also testify to the experiences of enslaved men, women, and children, though readers must consider that those experiences have been remediated through descriptions offered by slaveholders rather than the slaves themselves. Often unnamed in the advertisements, enslaved men, women, and children were not invisible or unimportant in early America.

These advertisements appeared in colonial American newspapers 250 years ago today.

Jun 23 - Boston Weekly News-Letter Slavery 1
Boston Weekly News-Letter (June 23, 1768).

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Jun 23 - New-York Journal Supplement Slavery 1
Supplement to the New-York Journal (June 23, 1768).

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Jun 23 - Pennsylvania Gazette Slavery 1
Pennsylvania Gazette (June 23, 1768).

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Jun 23 - Pennsylvania Gazette Slavery 2
Pennsylvania Gazette (June 23, 1768).

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Jun 23 - Pennsylvania Gazette Slavery 3
Pennsylvania Gazette (June 23, 1768).

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Jun 23 - Pennsylvania Gazette Slavery 4
Pennsylvania Gazette (June 23, 1768).

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Jun 23 - Pennsylvania Gazette Supplement Slavery 1
Supplement to the Pennsylvania Gazette (June 23, 1768).

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Jun 23 - Pennsylvania Gazette Supplement Slavery 2
Supplement to the Pennsylvania Gazette (June 23, 1768).

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Jun 23 - Pennsylvania Gazette Supplement Slavery 3
Supplement to the Pennsylvania Gazette (June 23, 1768).

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Jun 23 - Pennsylvania Gazette Supplement Slavery 4
Supplement to the Pennsylvania Gazette (June 23, 1768).

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Jun 23 - Pennsylvania Gazette Supplement Slavery 5
Supplement to the Pennsylvania Gazette (June 23, 1768).

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Jun 23 - Pennsylvania Journal Slavery 1
Pennsylvania Journal (June 23, 1768).

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Jun 23 - Virginia Gazette Purdie and Dixon Slavery 1
Virginia Gazette [Purdie & Dixon] (June 23, 1768).

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Jun 23 - Virginia Gazette Purdie and Dixon Slavery 2
Virginia Gazette [Purdie & Dixon] (June 23, 1768).

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Jun 23 - Virginia Gazette Purdie and Dixon Slavery 3
Virginia Gazette [Purdie & Dixon] (June 23, 1768).

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Jun 23 - Virginia Gazette Purdie and Dixon Slavery 4
Virginia Gazette [Purdie & Dixon] (June 23, 1768).

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Jun 23 - Virginia Gazette Purdie and Dixon Slavery 5
Virginia Gazette [Purdie & Dixon] (June 23, 1768).

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Jun 23 - Virginia Gazette Purdie and Dixon Slavery 6
Virginia Gazette [Purdie & Dixon] (June 23, 1768).

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Jun 23 - Virginia Gazette Purdie and Dixon Slavery 7
Virginia Gazette [Purdie & Dixon] (June 23, 1768).

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Jun 23 - Virginia Gazette Purdie and Dixon Slavery 8
Virginia Gazette [Purdie & Dixon] (June 23, 1768).

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Jun 23 - Virginia Gazette Rind Slavery 1
Virginia Gazette [Rind] (June 23, 1768).

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Jun 23 - Virginia Gazette Rind Slavery 2
Virginia Gazette [Rind] (June 23, 1768).

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Jun 23 - Virginia Gazette Rind Slavery 3
Virginia Gazette [Rind] (June 23, 1768).

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Jun 23 - Virginia Gazette Rind Slavery 4
Virginia Gazette [Rind] (June 23, 1768).

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Jun 23 - Virginia Gazette Rind Slavery 5
Virginia Gazette [Rind] (June 23, 1768).

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Jun 23 - Virginia Gazette Rind Slavery 6
Virginia Gazette [Rind] (June 23, 1768).

Slavery Advertisements Published June 9, 1768

The Slavery Adverts 250 Project chronicles the role of newspaper advertising in perpetuating slavery in the era of the American Revolution. The project seeks to reveal the ubiquity of slavery in eighteenth-century life from New England to Georgia by republishing advertisements for slaves – for sale, wanted to purchase, runaways, captured fugitives – in daily digests on this site as well as in real time via the @SlaveAdverts250 Twitter feed, utilizing twenty-first-century media to stand in for the print media of the eighteenth century.

The project aims to provide modern audiences with a sense of just how often colonists encountered these advertisements in their daily lives. Enslaved men, women, and children appeared in print somewhere in the colonies almost every single day. Those advertisements served as a constant backdrop for social, cultural, economic, and political life in colonial and revolutionary America. Colonists who did not own slaves were still confronted with slavery as well as invited to maintain the system by purchasing slaves or assisting in the capture of runaways. The frequency of these newspaper advertisements suggests just how embedded slavery was in colonial and revolutionary American culture in everyday interactions beyond the printed page.

These advertisements also testify to the experiences of enslaved men, women, and children, though readers must consider that those experiences have been remediated through descriptions offered by slaveholders rather than the slaves themselves. Often unnamed in the advertisements, enslaved men, women, and children were not invisible or unimportant in early America.

These advertisements appeared in colonial American newspapers 250 years ago today.

Jun 9 - New-York Journal Slavery 1
New-York Journal (June 9, 1768).

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Jun 9 - New-York Journal Slavery 2
New-York Journal (June 9, 1768).

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Jun 9 - Pennsylvania Gazette Slavery 1
Pennsylvania Gazette (June 9, 1768).

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Jun 9 - Pennsylvania Gazette Slavery 2
Pennsylvania Gazette (June 9, 1768).

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Jun 9 - Pennsylvania Gazette Supplement Slavery 1
Supplement to the Pennsylvania Gazette (June 9, 1768).

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Jun 9 - Pennsylvania Gazette Supplement Slavery 2
Supplement to the Pennsylvania Gazette (June 9, 1768).

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Jun 9 - Pennsylvania Gazette Supplement Slavery 3
Supplement to the Pennsylvania Gazette (June 9, 1768).

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Jun 9 - Pennsylvania Gazette Supplement Slavery 4
Supplement to the Pennsylvania Gazette (June 9, 1768).

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Jun 9 - Pennsylvania Journal Slavery 1
Pennsylvania Journal (June 9, 1768).

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Jun 9 - Pennsylvania Journal Slavery 2
Pennsylvania Journal (June 9, 1768).

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Jun 9 - Pennsylvania Journal Slavery 3
Pennsylvania Journal (June 9, 1768).

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Jun 9 - Pennsylvania Journal Slavery 4
Pennsylvania Journal (June 9, 1768).

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Jun 9 - Virginia Gazette Purdie and Dixon Slavery 1
Virginia Gazette [Purdie & Dixon] (June 9, 1768).

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Jun 9 - Virginia Gazette Purdie and Dixon Slavery 2
Virginia Gazette [Purdie & Dixon] (June 9, 1768).

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Jun 9 - Virginia Gazette Purdie and Dixon Slavery 3
Virginia Gazette [Purdie & Dixon] (June 9, 1768).

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Jun 9 - Virginia Gazette Purdie and Dixon Slavery 4
Virginia Gazette [Purdie & Dixon] (June 9, 1768).

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Jun 9 - Virginia Gazette Rind Slavery 1
Virginia Gazette [Rind] (June 9, 1768).

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Jun 9 - Virginia Gazette Rind Slavery 2
Virginia Gazette [Rind] (June 9, 1768).

Slavery Advertisements Published April 14, 1768

The Slavery Adverts 250 Project chronicles the role of newspaper advertising in perpetuating slavery in the era of the American Revolution. The project seeks to reveal the ubiquity of slavery in eighteenth-century life from New England to Georgia by republishing advertisements for slaves – for sale, wanted to purchase, runaways, captured fugitives – in daily digests on this site as well as in real time via the @SlaveAdverts250 Twitter feed, utilizing twenty-first-century media to stand in for the print media of the eighteenth century.

The project aims to provide modern audiences with a sense of just how often colonists encountered these advertisements in their daily lives. Enslaved men, women, and children appeared in print somewhere in the colonies almost every single day. Those advertisements served as a constant backdrop for social, cultural, economic, and political life in colonial and revolutionary America. Colonists who did not own slaves were still confronted with slavery as well as invited to maintain the system by purchasing slaves or assisting in the capture of runaways. The frequency of these newspaper advertisements suggests just how embedded slavery was in colonial and revolutionary American culture in everyday interactions beyond the printed page.

These advertisements also testify to the experiences of enslaved men, women, and children, though readers must consider that those experiences have been remediated through descriptions offered by slaveholders rather than the slaves themselves. Often unnamed in the advertisements, enslaved men, women, and children were not invisible or unimportant in early America.

These advertisements appeared in colonial American newspapers 250 years ago today.

Apr 14 - New-York Journal Slavery 1
New-York Journal (April 14, 1768).

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Apr 14 - New-York Journal Slavery 2
New-York Journal (April 14, 1768).

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Apr 14 - New-York Journal Slavery 3
New-York Journal (April 14, 1768).

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Apr 14 - Pennsylvania Gazette Slavery 1
Pennsylvania Gazette (April 14, 1768).

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Apr 14 - Pennsylvania Gazette Slavery 2
Pennsylvania Gazette (April 14, 1768).

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Apr 14 - Pennsylvania Gazette Slavery 3
Pennsylvania Gazette (April 14, 1768).

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Apr 14 - Pennsylvania Gazette Slavery 4
Pennsylvania Gazette (April 14, 1768).

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Apr 14 - Pennsylvania Gazette Slavery 5
Pennsylvania Gazette (April 14, 1768).

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Apr 14 - Pennsylvania Gazette Slavery 6
Pennsylvania Gazette (April 14, 1768).

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Apr 14 - Pennsylvania Gazette Slavery 7
Pennsylvania Gazette (April 14, 1768).

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Apr 14 - Pennsylvania Gazette Supplement Slavery 1
Supplement to the Pennsylvania Gazette (April 14, 1768).

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Apr 14 - Pennsylvania Gazette Supplement Slavery 2
Supplement to the Pennsylvania Gazette (April 14, 1768).

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Apr 14 - Pennsylvania Journal Slavery 1
Pennsylvania Journal (April 14, 1768).

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Apr 14 - Virginia Gazette Purdie and Dixon Slavery 1
Virginia Gazette [Purdie & Dixon] (April 14, 1768).

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Apr 14 - Virginia Gazette Purdie and Dixon Slavery 2
Virginia Gazette [Purdie & Dixon] (April 14, 1768).

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Apr 14 - Virginia Gazette Purdie and Dixon Slavery 3
Virginia Gazette [Purdie & Dixon] (April 14, 1768).

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Apr 14 - Virginia Gazette Rind Slavery 1
Virginia Gazette [Rind] (April 14, 1768).

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Apr 14 - Virginia Gazette Rind Slavery 2
Virginia Gazette [Rind] (April 14, 1768).

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Apr 14 - Virginia Gazette Rind Slavery 3
Virginia Gazette [Rind] (April 14, 1768).

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Apr 14 - Virginia Gazette Rind Supplement Slavery 1
Supplement to the Virginia Gazette [Rind] (April 14, 1768).

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Apr 14 - Virginia Gazette Rind Supplement Slavery 2
Supplement to the Virginia Gazette [Rind] (April 14, 1768).

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Apr 14 - Virginia Gazette Rind Supplement Slavery 3
Supplement to the Virginia Gazette [Rind] (April 14, 1768).

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Apr 14 - Virginia Gazette Rind Supplement Slavery 4
Supplement to the Virginia Gazette [Rind] (April 14, 1768).

June 29

What was advertised in a colonial American newspaper 250 years ago today?

Jun 29 - 6:29:1767 Newport Mercury
Newport Mercury (June 29, 1767).

“Those Persons who will send their Victuals, ready prepared, may depend upon being well served.”

John Jent, a baker in Newport, sold pies that he made, but that was not the primary purpose of the advertisement he placed in the Newport Mercury in June 1767. Jent informed local residents that he had a “good Oven” for baking “any Sort of Victuals” delivered to him “ready prepared.” The baker heated his oven twice daily to accommodate midday and evening meals.

Like many other advertisers, Jent promised good service and low prices, but that was not the extent of the benefits he afforded his customers. He also provided convenience, though he did not elaborate on that quality of his business. In the 1760s various advertisers played with the idea of convenience without fully developing the concept. They hinted at it, anticipating larger scale articulations that emerged as marketing evolved.

Some shopkeepers, for instance, published lengthy lists of merchandise. Most emphasized consumer choice, but a few began to suggest that large inventories meant customers could enjoy one-stop shopping rather than traipsing from one shop to another. To that end, Thompson and Arnold asserted that “they have been at great Cost and Pains to supply themselves with as great a Variety of articles as can be found in any one Store in New-England.” Lest potential customers miss their meaning, the partners explicitly stated, “As their Assortment is so large they hope to save their Customers the Trouble of going through the Town to supply themselves with the Necessaries they may want.” Others emphasized the locations of their shops, noting that patrons could visit them more easily and expend less time and energy than traveling to other shops. Such was the case when James Brown and Benoni Pearce informed readers of the Providence Gazette that “Customers coming form the Westward may save both Time and Shoe-Leather by calling at their aforesaid Shops” rather than crossing the Great Bridge to the other side of the city. Some advertisers invited customers to send orders by mail. Peter Roberts, who sold imported “Drugs & Medicines,” advertised in the Boston-Gazette that “Orders by Letters from Practitioners and others, in Town or Country, will be as faithfully complied with as if they were present.”

John Jent provided another form of convenience to customers, sparing them the time and resources necessary to bake “Pies, Puddings, &c.” on their own. Instead, they could go about the rest of their daily business and pick up meals ready to eat at times that fit their own schedules.