October 22

What was advertised in a colonial American newspaper 250 years ago today?

New-York Gazette and Weekly Mercury (October 22, 1770).

All Sorts of Gold, Silver, and Silk.”

Barnaby Andrews, an “IMBROIDERER,” placed a notice in the October 22, 1770, edition of the New-York Gazette and Weekly Mercury to advertise his many services.  He described four different branches of his business to attract prospective customers.  Andrews commenced with the most obvious, proclaiming that he “MAKES all Sorts of Gold, Silver, and Silk for Men and Womens Ware” as well as “Pulpit Cloths, Tassels and Fringes.”  As a related service, he informed the public that he “cleans all Sorts of Gold and Silver Lace.”  These were the types of work expected of embroiderers.

Yet Andrews provided two other services beyond making and maintaining embroidery.  He offered to impart his skills to “Any Lady” who wished to take lessons.  When it came to leisure activities and household production, after all, embroidery was predominantly a feminine pastime.  Prospective pupils had two option when it came to the location for their lessons.  They could choose to have Andrews visit them at home, certainly a convenience, but they could also opt for the embroiderer’s lodgings on Broad Street.  Either way, the advertisement suggested that they would receive more personalized attention from Andrews than they would from schoolmistresses who included sewing and simple embroidery in their curriculum for girls and young women.

In addition to embroidery, Andrews also made “all Sort of Paper Work” and “Hat, Patch and Bonnet Boxes” for storing some of the items that women used to adorn their faces and heads.  Madeline Siefke Estill explains that patch boxes were “indices of gentility” similar to snuff boxes and tobacco boxes.  Patches were made from “a wide range of materials – black silk, velvet, paper, or red leather – and cut into a variety of shapes and sizes” to be “applied to the face or bosom with mastic.”  Patches served several purposed, including lending “an impression of formal distinction and enhanc[ing] one’s beauty and desirability.”  While patches could be used to disguise blemishes, women also wore them to “appear younger and more fashionable.”  Andrews asserted that he made his boxes “in the neatest and best Fashion,” suitable accouterments for genteel women to collect, display, or even give as gifts.

Andrews aimed his advertisement primarily at the local gentry, those who had the means to acquire silks and lace as well as the leisure time to learn embroidery as a diversion.  Like many other artisans, he provided the means for his clients to perform gentility though he could not claim admission to the ranks of the genteel himself.

Slavery Advertisements Published October 22, 1770

GUEST CURATOR:  Bryant Halpin

The Slavery Adverts 250 Project chronicles the role of newspaper advertising in perpetuating slavery in the era of the American Revolution. The project seeks to reveal the ubiquity of slavery in eighteenth-century life from New England to Georgia by republishing advertisements for slaves – for sale, wanted to purchase, runaways, captured fugitives – in daily digests on this site as well as in real time via the @SlaveAdverts250 Twitter feed, utilizing twenty-first-century media to stand in for the print media of the eighteenth century.

The project aims to provide modern audiences with a sense of just how often colonists encountered these advertisements in their daily lives. Enslaved men, women, and children appeared in print somewhere in the colonies almost every single day. Those advertisements served as a constant backdrop for social, cultural, economic, and political life in colonial and revolutionary America. Colonists who did not own slaves were still confronted with slavery as well as invited to maintain the system by purchasing slaves or assisting in the capture of runaways. The frequency of these newspaper advertisements suggests just how embedded slavery was in colonial and revolutionary American culture in everyday interactions beyond the printed page.

These advertisements also testify to the experiences of enslaved men, women, and children, though readers must consider that those experiences have been remediated through descriptions offered by slaveholders rather than the slaves themselves. Often unnamed in the advertisements, enslaved men, women, and children were not invisible or unimportant in early America.

These advertisements appeared in colonial American newspapers 250 years ago today.

Oct 22 1770 - Boston Evening-Post Slavery 1
Boston Evening-Post (October 22, 1770).

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Oct 22 1770 - Boston Evening-Post Slavery 2
Boston Evening-Post (October 22, 1770).

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Oct 22 1770 - Boston-Gazette Slavery 1
Boston-Gazette (October 22, 1770).

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Oct 22 1770 - Boston-Gazette Slavery 2
Boston-Gazette (October 22, 1770).

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Oct 22 1770 - Boston-Gazette Slavery 3
Boston-Gazette (October 22, 1770).

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Oct 22 1770 - Boston-Gazette Slavery 4
Boston-Gazette (October 22, 1770).

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Oct 22 1770 - Massachusetts Gazette and Boston Post-Boy Slavery 1
Massachusetts Gazette and Boston Post-Boy (October 22, 1770).

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Oct 22 1770 - Massachusetts Gazette and Boston Post-Boy Slavery 2
Massachusetts Gazette and Boston Post-Boy (October 22, 1770).

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Oct 22 1770 - Massachusetts Gazette and Boston Post-Boy Slavery 3
Massachusetts Gazette and Boston Post-Boy (October 22, 1770).

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Oct 22 1770 - Massachusetts Gazette and Boston Post-Boy Slavery 4
Massachusetts Gazette and Boston Post-Boy (October 22, 1770).

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Oct 22 1770 - Massachusetts Gazette and Boston Post-Boy Slavery 5
Massachusetts Gazette and Boston Post-Boy (October 22, 1770).

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Oct 22 1770 - New-York Gazette and Weekly Mercury Slavery 1
New-York Gazette and Weekly Mercury (October 22, 1770).

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Oct 22 1770 - New-York Gazette and Weekly Mercury Slavery 2
New-York Gazette and Weekly Mercury (October 22, 1770).

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Oct 22 1770 - New-York Gazette and Weekly Mercury Slavery 3
New-York Gazette and Weekly Mercury (October 22, 1770).

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Oct 22 1770 - New-York Gazette and Weekly Mercury Slavery 6a
New-York Gazette and Weekly Mercury (October 22, 1770).

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Oct 22 1770 - New-York Gazette and Weekly Mercury Slavery 4
New-York Gazette and Weekly Mercury (October 22, 1770).

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Oct 22 1770 - New-York Gazette and Weekly Mercury Slavery 5
New-York Gazette and Weekly Mercury (October 22, 1770).

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Oct 22 1770 - New-York Gazette or Weekly Post-Boy Slavery 1
New-York Gazette or Weekly Post-Boy (October 22, 1770).

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Oct 22 1770 - Pennsylvania Chronicle Slavery 1
Pennsylvania Chronicle (October 22, 1770).

October 21

What was advertised in a colonial American newspaper 250 years ago this week?

New-York Journal (October 18, 1770).

“The Medley of Goods Sold by G DUYCKINCK.”

Few visual images adorned advertisements published in eighteenth-century newspapers.  Most of those that did appear depicted ships at sea (for freight and passage or imported goods), houses (for real estate), horses (for breeding), enslaved people (for sale or fleeing from bondage), or indentured servants (running away before their contracts expired).  These stock images, which belonged to the printers, were used interchangeably with any advertisement from the appropriate genre.  Far fewer advertisements featured unique images created expressly to represent a particular business, depicting particular merchandise or the shop sign that marked the location.  In those cases, advertisers commissioned the woodcuts and retained exclusive use of them.  Most were fairly modest, making Gerardus Duyckinck’s large and elaborate woodcut all the more notable and memorable.

Duyckinck operated a shop known as the “UNIVERSAL STORE” for its broad assortment of merchandise available to consumers.  He also referred to his inventory as “The Medley of Goods.”  Located at the “Sign of the Looking Glass & Druggist Pot” in New York, Duyckinck sold his wares “Wholesale and Retail.”  His woodcut featured an intricate rococo border that enclosed most of the copy for his advertisements, though he usually inserted a couple of lines of introductory material above it.  The copy within the border changed regularly.  A “Druggist Pot” sat at the top of the border and a “Looking Glass” with an ornate frame took up one-third of the space within the border, those two items replicating the shop sign that alerted prospective customers they had reached their destination.  The graphic design resembled the borders and other images that decorated trade cards distributed frequently by merchants, shopkeepers, and artisans in London and less often by their counterparts in the American colonies.  The image testified to taste and gentility, suggesting that these qualities were transferable to consumers who purchased goods from Duyckinck.

This ornate border and the lists of goods it enclosed appeared in the New-York Journal regularly in the late 1760s and into the 1770s.  Duyckinck first published it on October 29, 1767.  Three years later, it became a familiar sight to subscribers and other readers of the New-York Journal.  Even as other advertisements cycled through that newspaper, many running for the standard four weeks specified in the colophon before being discontinued, Duyckinck’s rococo border was present for weeks and months, the copy updated but the visual image remaining the same.  Other advertisers, such as staymaker Richard Norris and shopkeeper John Keating, invested in advertising campaigns that extended over months rather than weeks.  Their notices often ran on the same page as Duyckinck’s advertisement, as was the case in the October 18, 1770, edition, but they did not have visual elements that made them instantly recognizable.  No matter which other advertisements appeared alongside Duyckinck’s notice, his attracted attention due its striking image.  Prospective customers did not have to read the advertisement to know that Duyckinck made an assortment of goods available for purchase.  The repetition of such a memorable woodcut over the course of several years was a marketing strategy in and of itself.

October 20

What was advertised in a colonial American newspaper 250 years ago today?

Providence Gazette (October 20, 1770).

“The Subscriber proposes undertaking the Practice of the Law.”

In the fall of 1770, John Cole took to the pages of the Providence Gazette to advertise his services as an attorney.  In introducing himself to prospective clients, Cole noted that “several Gentlemen of the LAW have lately removed from Providence.”  Furthermore, there was “another Vacancy at the Bar” caused by the death of “the late worthy and ingenious Oliver Arnold, Esq.”  As a result, residents of Providence and nearby towns and villages no longer had access to as many attorneys.  Cole sought to fill that gap in the market.

When he informed the public that he “proposes undertaking the Practice of the Law,” Cole asserted that he had been “brought up” to the business, though he did not provide additional details about his training and credentials.  Instead, he focused on his demeanor, assuring prospective clients that he would serve them “with the utmost Fidelity, Dispatch and Punctuality.”  Advertisers of all sorts made such promises, whether attorneys or artisans, but an emphasis on fidelity had a different resonance when invoked by those practicing the law.  It implied both confidentiality and consistently working in the best interests of clients, two aspects of the profession that some attorneys more explicitly highlighted in their advertisements.  Cole made more general commitments that his clients would be satisfied with his services.

He also cast his net widely for clients, seeking them in Providence and “the neighbouring Towns or Governments.”  The Providence Gazette served much of Rhode Island as well as portions of Massachusetts and Connecticut.  For instance, Joseph Jewet and Darius Adams’s advertisement on the same page as Cole’s notice in the October 20, 1770, edition addressed readers in several towns in Connecticut who might wish to engage them as postriders to deliver their newspapers.  Jewet and Adams also promised fidelity, but in their case they meant that patrons would receive their newspapers rather than have them go missing.

With the departure of several attorneys and the death of another, Cole sought to establish himself as an attorney in Providence.  To attract clients, he not only announced that he opened an office but also suggested that he had some sort of training and offered assurances that he would be trustworthy and competent in delivering his services.  Compared to modern advertising for legal services, Cole was considerably less bombastic.  He aimed to earn the confidence of prospective clients, not attract them with spectacle.

Slavery Advertisements Published October 20, 1770

GUEST CURATOR:  Bryant Halpin

The Slavery Adverts 250 Project chronicles the role of newspaper advertising in perpetuating slavery in the era of the American Revolution. The project seeks to reveal the ubiquity of slavery in eighteenth-century life from New England to Georgia by republishing advertisements for slaves – for sale, wanted to purchase, runaways, captured fugitives – in daily digests on this site as well as in real time via the @SlaveAdverts250 Twitter feed, utilizing twenty-first-century media to stand in for the print media of the eighteenth century.

The project aims to provide modern audiences with a sense of just how often colonists encountered these advertisements in their daily lives. Enslaved men, women, and children appeared in print somewhere in the colonies almost every single day. Those advertisements served as a constant backdrop for social, cultural, economic, and political life in colonial and revolutionary America. Colonists who did not own slaves were still confronted with slavery as well as invited to maintain the system by purchasing slaves or assisting in the capture of runaways. The frequency of these newspaper advertisements suggests just how embedded slavery was in colonial and revolutionary American culture in everyday interactions beyond the printed page.

These advertisements also testify to the experiences of enslaved men, women, and children, though readers must consider that those experiences have been remediated through descriptions offered by slaveholders rather than the slaves themselves. Often unnamed in the advertisements, enslaved men, women, and children were not invisible or unimportant in early America.

These advertisements appeared in colonial American newspapers 250 years ago today.

Oct 20 1770 - Providence Gazette Slavery 1
Providence Gazette (October 20, 1770).

October 19

What was advertised in a colonial American newspaper 250 years ago today?

New-Hampshire Gazette (October 19, 1770).

“An Elegiac Poem, On the Death of … GEORGE WHITEFIELD.”

The Boston Massacre and the death of George Whitefield both occurred in 1770, separated by almost six months. News of both events quickly spread via the colonial press with coverage commencing in Boston’s newspapers and then radiating out to other newspapers in other towns in New England and beyond.  In both instances, simultaneous acts of commemoration and commodification quickly followed.  Paul Revere and Henry Pelham marketed prints depicting the “Bloody Massacre” just weeks after British soldiers fired on a crowd in Boston, killing several people.  The commodification of Whitefield’s death happened more quickly and more extensively.  The Boston Massacre may be better remembered today as a result of the war for independence that it helped to inspire, but in 1770 it was the death of one of the most prominent ministers associated with the religious revivals now known as the Great Awakening that captured far more attention when it came to creating and selling commemorative items.

Within a couple of weeks of Whitefield’s death on September 30, all five newspapers published in Boston printed advertisements for at least one commemorative item that colonists could purchase.  This commodification also found its way into the Essex Gazette, published in Salem, and the New-Hampshire Gazette, published in Portsmouth.  Daniel Fowle and Robert Fowle, the printers of the New-Hampshire Gazette, provided extensive coverage of Whitefield’s death and public reaction to it, devoting a significant amount of space to it.  Between news articles, verses in memory of the minister, and advertisements for commemorative items, contents about Whitefield accounted for more than ten percent of the column inches in the October 19 edition of the New-Hampshire Gazette, as they had in each issue since the minister’s death.  The Fowles ran a new article that proclaimed Whitefield’s “PATRIOTISM.”  For a second time, they inserted an advertisement for two broadsides for sale at the printing office.  They devoted an entire column, complete with mourning bands at top and bottom, to two poems reprinted from other newspapers and a new advertisement for yet another broadside.

That advertisement promoted the “Elegiac Poem … By Phillis, a Servant Girl.”  That “Servant Girl” was Phillis Wheatley, the enslaved poet who became one of the most influential poets in eighteenth-century American literature.  This broadside had already been advertised widely in Boston’s newspapers and the Essex Gazette.  In selling it in New Hampshire, the Fowles enlarged the community of commemoration that consumed the same items.  Just as they read the same news items and verses reprinted from newspaper to newspaper, colonists purchased, read, and displayed the same memorabilia from town to town, creating a more unified experience despite the distance that separated them.  The Fowles suggested that Wheatley’s poem “ought to be preserved” – not just purchased – “for two good Reasons.”  The first was “in Remembrance of that great and good man, Mr. Whitefield.”  In addition, customers should acquire a copy “on Account of its being w[ro]te by a Native of Africa, and yet would have done Honor to a Pope or Shakespere.”  The Fowles traded on the novelty of an enslaved poet who “had been but nine Years in this Country from Africa,” hoping that would incite greater demand for this commemorative item.

The Adverts 250 Project has featured advertisements related to the commodification of Whitefield’s death several times in recent weeks.  While many other kinds of advertisements appeared in the colonial press, this repetition is meant to demonstrate how widely printers and others marketed Whitefield memorabilia following his death.  The minister’s passing was a major news story, but one that also lent itself to widespread commemoration through commodification as printers sought to give consumers opportunities to express their grief and feel connected to the departed minister.

Slavery Advertisements Published October 19, 1770

GUEST CURATOR:  Bryant Halpin

The Slavery Adverts 250 Project chronicles the role of newspaper advertising in perpetuating slavery in the era of the American Revolution. The project seeks to reveal the ubiquity of slavery in eighteenth-century life from New England to Georgia by republishing advertisements for slaves – for sale, wanted to purchase, runaways, captured fugitives – in daily digests on this site as well as in real time via the @SlaveAdverts250 Twitter feed, utilizing twenty-first-century media to stand in for the print media of the eighteenth century.

The project aims to provide modern audiences with a sense of just how often colonists encountered these advertisements in their daily lives. Enslaved men, women, and children appeared in print somewhere in the colonies almost every single day. Those advertisements served as a constant backdrop for social, cultural, economic, and political life in colonial and revolutionary America. Colonists who did not own slaves were still confronted with slavery as well as invited to maintain the system by purchasing slaves or assisting in the capture of runaways. The frequency of these newspaper advertisements suggests just how embedded slavery was in colonial and revolutionary American culture in everyday interactions beyond the printed page.

These advertisements also testify to the experiences of enslaved men, women, and children, though readers must consider that those experiences have been remediated through descriptions offered by slaveholders rather than the slaves themselves. Often unnamed in the advertisements, enslaved men, women, and children were not invisible or unimportant in early America.

These advertisements appeared in colonial American newspapers 250 years ago today.

Oct 19 1770 - New-Hampshire Gazette Slavery 1
New-Hampshire Gazette (October 19, 1770).

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Oct 19 1770 - New-Hampshire Gazette Slavery 2
New-Hampshire Gazette (October 19, 1770).

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Oct 19 1770 - New-London Gazette Slavery 1
New-London Gazette (October 19, 1770).

October 18

What was advertised in a colonial American newspaper 250 years ago today?

“FOR SALE, THE FOLLOWING VALUABLE TRACTS OF LAND.”

South-Carolina Gazette (October 18, 1770).

This advertisement for “VALUABLE TRACTS OF LAND” offered for sale in South Carolina raises questions about its production and distribution.  Accessible Archives includes it as the fifth page of the October 18, 1770, edition of the South-Carolina Gazette.  Like most colonial newspapers, the South-Carolina Gazette consisted of four pages created by printing two pages on each side of a broadsheet and then folding it in half.  Peter Timothy, the printer, distributed one new issue each week, occasionally printing a supplement to accompany the standard four-page issue when he had sufficient content to justify doing so.

This advertisement deviates from several common elements of newspaper publication familiar to historians of eighteenth-century print culture.  Even though printers sometimes circulated supplements, they rarely distributed one-page supplements.  Instead, they created two-page or four-page supplements by printing on both sides of a sheet.  On rare instances did they print one-page supplements, an expensive venture given that paper was such a valuable commodity.  Blank space that could have been filled with news or, even better, advertising that generated revenues was wasteful.  Timothy included a short note on the final page of the October 18 edition that “ADVERTISEMENTS omitted this Week, will be in our next.”  It seems that he had additional content that could have been printed on the other side of the sheet promoting tracts of land for sale.

This suggests that Timothy did not consider the advertisement on the additional sheet part of the issue he published and distributed that week.  Like most newspaper printers, he did job printing as an additional revenue stream.  Orders included broadside advertisements, today known as posters, that could be handed out or hung up around town.  This advertisement was most likely a broadside printed separately.  How did it get associated with the October 18 edition of the South-Carolina Gazette?  It is possible that the advertisers made a deal with Timothy to distribute the broadside with the standard issue, though that was not a common practice.  More likely, at some point someone who acquired the newspaper and the broadside put them together.  Whether that person was a reader, collector, or librarian, their association of the two items took hold.  Accessible Archives replicated it when producing the digitized database of extant issues of the South-Carolina Gazette.

That is the most likely scenario, but certainly not a definitive answer.  The broadside’s inclusion with the October 18, 1770, edition of the South-Carolina Gazette in the digital archive suggests that it could have been part of that issue from the very start.  If so, that raises questions about innovation on the part of both the printer and the advertisers who deviated from standard practices.  It also raises questions about negotiations between the printer and the advertisers, especially in terms of cost and format.  That the broadside is now treated as the fifth page of the newspapers may be the result of an error introduced sometime after the two were printed.  Alternately, this may be evidence of creativity and innovation in the production and distribution of advertising in eighteenth-century America.

Slavery Advertisements Published October 18, 1770

GUEST CURATOR:  Bryant Halpin

The Slavery Adverts 250 Project chronicles the role of newspaper advertising in perpetuating slavery in the era of the American Revolution. The project seeks to reveal the ubiquity of slavery in eighteenth-century life from New England to Georgia by republishing advertisements for slaves – for sale, wanted to purchase, runaways, captured fugitives – in daily digests on this site as well as in real time via the @SlaveAdverts250 Twitter feed, utilizing twenty-first-century media to stand in for the print media of the eighteenth century.

The project aims to provide modern audiences with a sense of just how often colonists encountered these advertisements in their daily lives. Enslaved men, women, and children appeared in print somewhere in the colonies almost every single day. Those advertisements served as a constant backdrop for social, cultural, economic, and political life in colonial and revolutionary America. Colonists who did not own slaves were still confronted with slavery as well as invited to maintain the system by purchasing slaves or assisting in the capture of runaways. The frequency of these newspaper advertisements suggests just how embedded slavery was in colonial and revolutionary American culture in everyday interactions beyond the printed page.

These advertisements also testify to the experiences of enslaved men, women, and children, though readers must consider that those experiences have been remediated through descriptions offered by slaveholders rather than the slaves themselves. Often unnamed in the advertisements, enslaved men, women, and children were not invisible or unimportant in early America.

These advertisements appeared in colonial American newspapers 250 years ago today.

Oct 18 1770 - Maryland Gazette Slavery 1
Maryland Gazette (October 18, 1770).

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Oct 18 1770 - Maryland Gazette Slavery 2
Maryland Gazette (October 18, 1770).

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Oct 18 1770 - Massachusetts Gazette and Boston Weekly News-Letter Slavery 1
Massachusetts Gazette and Boston Weekly Mercury (October 18, 1770).

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Oct 18 1770 - Massachusetts Gazette and Boston Weekly News-Letter Slavery 2
Massachusetts Gazette and Boston Weekly News-Letter (October 18, 1770).

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Massachusetts Gazette and Boston Weekly News-Letter (October 18, 1770).

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Oct 18 1770 - Massachusetts Gazette and Boston Weekly News-Letter Supplement Slavery 1
Supplement to the Massachusetts Gazette and Boston News-Letter (October 18, 1770).

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Oct 18 1770 - Massachusetts Gazette and Boston Weekly News-Letter Supplement Slavery 2
Supplement to the Massachusetts Gazette and Boston News-Letter (October 18, 1770).

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Oct 18 1770 - Massachusetts Gazette and Boston Weekly News-Letter Supplement Slavery 3
Supplement to the Massachusetts Gazette and Boston News-Letter (October 18, 1770).

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Oct 18 1770 - Massachusetts Spy Slavery 1
Massachusetts Spy (October 18, 1770).

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Oct 18 1770 - New-York Journal Slavery 1
New-York Journal (October 18, 1770).

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Oct 18 1770 - Pennsylvania Gazette Slavery 1
Pennsylvania Gazette (October 18, 1770).

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Oct 18 1770 - Pennsylvania Gazette Slavery 2
Pennsylvania Gazette (October 18, 1770).

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Oct 18 1770 - Pennsylvania Journal Slavery 1
Pennsylvania Journal (October 18, 1770).

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Oct 18 1770 - Pennsylvania Journal Slavery 2
Pennsylvania Journal (October 18, 1770).

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Oct 18 1770 - South-Carolina Gazette Slavery 1
South-Carolina Gazette (October 18, 1770).

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Oct 18 1770 - South-Carolina Gazette Slavery 2
South-Carolina Gazette (October 18, 1770).

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Oct 18 1770 - South-Carolina Gazette Slavery 3
South-Carolina Gazette (October 18, 1770).

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Oct 18 1770 - South-Carolina Gazette Slavery 4
South-Carolina Gazette (October 18, 1770).

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Oct 18 1770 - South-Carolina Gazette Slavery 5
South-Carolina Gazette (October 18, 1770).

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Oct 18 1770 - South-Carolina Gazette Slavery 6
South-Carolina Gazette (October 18, 1770).

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Oct 18 1770 - South-Carolina Gazette Slavery 7
South-Carolina Gazette (October 18, 1770).

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Oct 18 1770 - South-Carolina Gazette Slavery 8
South-Carolina Gazette (October 18, 1770).

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Oct 18 1770 - South-Carolina Gazette Slavery 9
South-Carolina Gazette (October 18, 1770).

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Oct 18 1770 - South-Carolina Gazette Slavery 10
South-Carolina Gazette (October 18, 1770).

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Oct 18 1770 - Virginia Gazette Purdie & Dixon Slavery 1
Virginia Gazette [Purdie and Dixon] (October 18, 1770).

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Oct 18 1770 - Virginia Gazette Purdie & Dixon Slavery 2
Virginia Gazette [Purdie and Dixon] (October 18, 1770).

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Oct 18 1770 - Virginia Gazette Purdie & Dixon Slavery 3
Virginia Gazette [Purdie and Dixon] (October 18, 1770).

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Oct 18 1770 - Virginia Gazette Purdie & Dixon Slavery 4
Virginia Gazette [Purdie and Dixon] (October 18, 1770).

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Oct 18 1770 - Virginia Gazette Purdie & Dixon Supplement Slavery 1
Supplement to the Virginia Gazette [Purdie and Dixon] (October 18, 1770).

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Oct 18 1770 - Virginia Gazette Rind Slavery 1
Virginia Gazette [Rind] (October 18, 1770).

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Oct 18 1770 - Virginia Gazette Rind Slavery 2
Virginia Gazette [Rind] (October 18, 1770).

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Oct 18 1770 - Virginia Gazette Rind Slavery 3
Virginia Gazette [Rind] (October 18, 1770).

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Oct 18 1770 - Virginia Gazette Rind Slavery 4
Virginia Gazette [Rind] (October 18, 1770).

Welcome, Guest Curator Bryant Halpin

Bryant Halpin is a senior at Assumption University in Worcester, Massachusetts.  He is majoring in History with a minor in Education with plans to become a high school history teacher.  His home town is Valatie, New York.  Bryant participates in the university’s Ultimate Frisbee program and is the co-captain of the team.  He has previously served as guest curator for the Adverts 250 Project and the Slavery Adverts 250 Project when he enrolled in HIS 359 – Revolutionary America in Spring 2019. He conducted the research for his current contributions as guest curator for the Slavery Adverts 250 Project when he was enrolled in HIS 400 – Research Methods: Vast Early America in Spring 2020.

Welcome, guest curator Bryant Halpin.