What was advertised in a colonial American newspaper 250 years ago today?
Joseph Russell and William Russell regularly placed advertisements in the Providence Gazette in the late 1760s and early 1770s. Like many other purveyors of goods, they listed some of the many items in stock at their store, including “Mens silk hose,” “Womens newest fashioned furr’d hats,” “Brass candlesticks,” and “Looking glasses.” In so doing, they demonstrated to consumers the wide array of choices available to them. The descriptions of some items further underscored that prospective customers could choose according to their own tastes and desires, such as “SCarlet, claret, tyrean, mixed, drab, cinnamon, green & blue broadcloths” and “Sewing silks of all colours.” The Russells’ notice in the Providence Gazette constituted a catalog of their merchandise in the format of a newspaper advertisement.
In addition to making an appeal to consumer choice, the Russells also deployed graphic design to draw attention to their advertisement and aid readers in navigating it. Their notice featured two columns of goods with a line down the center. Only one or two items appeared on each line, creating white space that made the entire advertisement easier to read. In contrast, most other items in the Providence Gazette (and other colonial newspapers) ran in dense blocks of text. News items almost invariably took that form. Most advertisements did as well, including the majority that enumerated the many items offered for sale. As a result, the design of the Russells’ advertisement likely caused readers to notice it before they actively set about reading it, encouraging them to look more closely. When they did read it, they could scan the contents more efficiently than working through a lengthy and dense paragraph. Primitive by modern standards, the two-column design distinguished the Russells’ advertisement from most other items in the newspaper.
That design cost more money since newspaper printers charged by the amount of space advertisements occupied rather than the number of words. The Russells apparently considered the additional expense worth the investment if it increased the number of readers who engaged with their advertisement.