August 11

What was advertised in a colonial American newspaper 250 years ago today?

Aug 11 - 8:11:1767 South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal
South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal (August 11, 1767).

“JOSEPH TURPIN, has opened a LIVERY STABLE.”

When he opened a livery stable in Charleston in the summer of 1767, Joseph Turpin turned to the advertising pages of the South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal to encourage potential customers to contract his services. Most eighteenth-century advertisers rarely mentioned anyone who provided assistance in their shops and other places of business. In general, advertisements obscured the labor of family members, apprentices, indentured servants, and employees, usually equating the operation of businesses exclusively with the proprietors themselves. Turpin, on the other hand, made one of his employees, William Swindle, “an experienced English Groom,” a central feature of his advertisement. It was not the proprietor’s skill, expertise, or experience marketed to potential clients but rather the qualifications and contributions of a subordinate.

To that end, in addition to asserting that Swindle had previous experience that made him “equal to the Task in every respect,” Turpin also included the groom’s recent work history in the advertisement, noting that he had been “lately in the employ of Robert Jones, of North-Carolina.” Although not exactly a reference in the current sense, revealing Swindle’s former employer further established his credentials and suggested that Jones would indeed provide a positive recommendation.

Swindle alone, however, was not responsible for the care horses at Turpin’s stable received. The proprietor did not abdicate other responsibilities; instead, he managed the business, overseeing its employees and operations. Turpin pledged that “those Gentlemen who will intrust the Care of their horses” to his stable “may depend they will be used in the best Manner.” Hiring an experienced groom to care for the horses was only part of fulfilling that promise. Providing “good Provinder” to feed the horses was another part. Swindle might make suggestions on that account, but the proprietor ultimately approved decisions concerning purchasing and paying for supplies.

Turpin crafted an advertisement that credited an employee for the specialized skills and experience he contributed to the business. While that comprised the primary appeal made to prospective clients, the proprietor also marketed his own management and oversight as further assurances of the quality of the services provided.

February 13

What was advertised in a colonial American newspaper 250 years ago today?

feb-13-2131767-south-carolina-and-american-general-gazette
South-Carolina and American General Gazette (February 13, 1767).

“His friends and customers may depend on being well served.”

Apothecary James Dick sold “A FRESH sortment of chemical and galenical MEDICINES” imported from London. Like other druggists in the colonies in the 1760s, he assembled “BOXES of MEDICINES, with directions, for plantations and ships.” In providing this service, he likely also moved portions of his inventory that tended to sell more slowly, especially if given the discretion to fabricate these eighteenth-century first aid kits rather than including only items specified by purchasers.

In addition to the ease and convenience of these “BOXES of MEDICINES,” Dick wanted his “friends and customers” to know that he emphasized service in other ways. He made a fairly unique pitch when he concluded his advertisement by noting that “he has now got from London a young gentleman regularly bred, who attends the shop constantly.” Advertisers from a variety of occupations and professions frequently pledged to treat potential customers well, often promising to fulfill their duties with “care” or “dispatch.” When mobilizing such appeals, however, advertisers usually referred to their own demeanor and qualities. Dick, on the other hand, described possible interactions with his employee.

Very few advertisers mentioned employees, perhaps because many ran small operations limited to family members and maybe an apprentice.   Even shopkeepers and artisans who may have had assistants of various sorts deployed advertising in which they retained their role as the public face of the businesses they operated.

By promoting the contributions of his assistant, Dick made at least two appeals to prospective customers, one practical and one aspirational. When he noted that his assistant “attends the shop constantly,” the apothecary let readers know that someone would be available to assist them no matter when they visited. Given that the druggist provided medical services, he may have been called away from the shop on occasion. Rather than close his shop, he made arrangements for an assistant to be present even when he was not.

In addition, when he noted that his assistant not only came from London but was “a young gentleman regularly bred” the apothecary conjured images of a prosperous and genteel shop where customers would be met with courtesy and deference. Given his line of business, Dick rightly assumed that some customers visited his shop when feeling their worst. The image of a “young gentleman regularly bred” serving those customers suggested an atmosphere of pampering and authentic concern rather than a hurried transaction in a busy dispensary. Some retail pharmacies make similar appeals today, emphasizing interactions – even relationships built over time – with pharmacists and other staff.