May 26

What was advertised in a colonial American newspaper 250 years ago today?

May 26 - 5:26:1767 South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal
South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal (May 26, 1767).

“Good horses and chairs, which he will hire out by the day.”

Personal transportation was a major investment in eighteenth-century America, just as it continues to be today. Not all colonists could afford to own horses, considering the costs of stabling, feeding, and caring for them. Even for those with horses, coaches and carriages were another significant expense, one often incurred only by the most affluent colonists who wished to demonstrate their gentility and wealth through conspicuous displays of consumption.

The costs, however, did not put the use of horse and carriage completely beyond the means of colonists who did not rank among the elite. Those who did not have either cause or the means to own horses or carriages of their own could rent them from entrepreneurs who took advantage of that void in the marketplace. Thomas Eustace, for instance, advertised that he had “purchased some good horses and chairs, which he will hire out by the day.” (Colonists used the term “chair” generically to denote all sorts of carriages.) In choosing the device to identify his location, Eustace positioned such rentals as a central component of his business: he could be found “at the sign of the Horse and Chair.” There he also stabled horses and “proposes taking in wagons” for the night. In effect, he provided parking in the bustling port of Charleston.

Eustace’s approach to providing personal transportation for other colonists anticipated practices commonly associated with the age of automobiles, but he was not the only innovative entrepreneur who pioneered what may otherwise seem to be particularly modern practices. The day before Eustace advertised in the South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal, Adino Paddock informed readers of the Boston-Gazette that in addition to making new coaches he also had to sell “a second-hand Phaeton, two Curricles, several Chaises and Chairs.” In addition he “will take old Chaises in part Pay for new.” Paddock had been offering used vehicles and trade ins for at least the better part of a year. Two days after Eustace’s advertisement, John Mercereau and John Barnhill inserted a notice in the New-York Gazette: Or, the Weekly Post-Boy to promote their “Stage-Waggons” that ran between Philadelphia and New York, complete with a woodcut of horses pulling a covered wagon. They ran a shuttle service not unlike buses that connect major urban centers today.

Thomas Eustace’s plan to “hire out” horses and carriages “by the day” was part of a larger network of services that made personal transportation accessible to greater numbers of people in eighteenth-century America. Some of the practices easily associated with the age of automobiles had precursors in the colonial era.

Slavery Advertisements Published May 26, 1767

These advertisements appeared in colonial American newspapers 250 years ago today.  Daily updates also available on Twitter:  @SlaveAdverts250.

May 26 - South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal Slavery 1
South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal (May 26, 1767).

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May 26 - South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal Slavery 2
South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal (May 26, 1767).

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May 26 - South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal Slavery 3
South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal (May 26, 1767).

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May 26 - South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal Slavery 4
South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal (May 26, 1767).

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May 26 - South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal Slavery 12
South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal (May 26, 1767).

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May 26 - South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal Slavery 5
South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal (May 26, 1767).

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May 26 - South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal Slavery 6
South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal (May 26, 1767).

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May 26 - South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal Slavery 7
South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal (May 27, 1767)

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May 26 - South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal Slavery 8
South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal (May 26, 1767).

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May 26 - South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal Slavery 9
South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal (May 26, 1767).

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May 26 - South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal Slavery 10
South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal (May 26, 1767).

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May 26 - South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal Slavery 11
South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal (May 26, 1767).

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May 26 - South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal Supplement Slavery 1
Supplement to the South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal (May 26, 1767).

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May 26 - South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal Supplement Slavery 2
Supplement to the South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal (May 26, 1767).

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May 26 - South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal Supplement Slavery 3
Supplement to the South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal (May 26, 1767).

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May 26 - South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal Supplement Slavery 4
Supplement to the South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal (May 26, 1767).

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May 26 - South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal Supplement Slavery 5
Supplement to the South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal (May 26, 1767).

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May 26 - South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal Supplement Slavery 11
Supplement to the South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal (May 26, 1767).

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May 26 - South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal Supplement Slavery 12
Supplement to the South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal (May 26, 1767).

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May 26 - South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal Supplement Slavery 6
Supplement to the South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal (May 26, 1767).

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May 26 - South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal Supplement Slavery 7
Supplement to the South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal (May 26, 1767).

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May 26 - South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal Supplement Slavery 8
Supplement to the South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal (May 26, 1767).

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May 26 - South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal Supplement Slavery 9
Supplement to the South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal (May 26, 1767).

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May 26 - South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal Supplement Slavery 10
Supplement to the South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal (May 26, 1767).

May 25

What was advertised in a colonial American newspaper 250 years ago today?

May 25 - 5:25:1767 Boston Post-Boy
Boston Evening-Post (May 25, 1767).

“Very handsome Ivory Paddle Fans,

Bone Stick and Ebony Ditto,

Womens silk Mitts and Gloves.”

The layout of William Palfrey’s advertisement for “A fresh Assortment of English Piece Goods” distinguished it from most other commercial notices published in the Boston Evening-Post and other newspapers in the 1760s. The shopkeeper listed much of his merchandise, but he did not resort to a paragraph of dense text or dividing the advertisement into two columns with one or two items on each line. Instead, he chose a couple of items for each line, specifying that every line be centered. This created quite a different visual effect in contrast to other advertisements that were crisply justified on the left and quite often on the right as well. Compare Palfrey’s advertisement to Daniel McCarthy’s advertisement, which appeared immediately to the left. Readers likely found Palfrey’s layout disorienting in comparison, especially since every advertisement on the page followed the style adopted by McCarthy. Palfrey’s disorienting layout thus made his advertisement the most noticeable advertisement on the page, giving him an edge over ten other shopkeepers.

May 25 - 5:25:1767 McCarthy in Boston Post-Boy
Boston Evening-Post (May 25, 1767).

Although advertisers usually generated copy and printers determined layout, it seems clear that Palfrey had a hand in designing the unique visual aspects of his advertisement. He placed the same notice in the Boston-Gazette on May 25, 1767. It featured almost identical format and layout. All of the same words appeared in capitals or italics. Certain lines appeared in larger font: not just “William Palfrey” and the first line of the list of goods (both of which would have been standard in any advertisement in any newspaper) but also “Tippets and Turbans,” items that the shopkeeper apparently wanted to emphatically bring to the attention of potential customers. A manicule directs readers to Palfrey’s promise to sell “very low for CASH” at the conclusion of the advertisement in both newspapers.

Very few advertisements for consumer goods and services included visual images in the eighteenth century, but that did not prevent some advertisers from attempting to distinguish their notices from those placed by their competitors. Although Palfrey advanced many of the same appeals, he devised another sort of innovation in marketing his wares.

Slavery Advertisements Published May 25, 1767

These advertisements appeared in colonial American newspapers 250 years ago today.  Daily updates also available on Twitter:  @SlaveAdverts250.

May 25 - Boston-Gazette Slavery 1
Boston-Gazette (May 25, 1767).

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May 25 - Boston-Gazette Slavery 2
Boston-Gazette (May 25, 1767).

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May 25 - New-York Gazette Slavery 1
New-York Gazette (May 25, 1767).

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May 25 - New-York Mercury Slavery 1
New-York Mercury (May 25, 1767).

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May 25 - New-York Mercury Slavery 2
New-York Mercury (May 25, 1767).

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May 25 - New-York Mercury Slavery 3
New-York Mercury (May 25, 1767).

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May 25 - New-York Mercury Slavery 4
New-York Mercury (May 25, 1767).

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May 25 - New-York Mercury Slavery 5
New-York Mercury (May 25, 1767).

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May 25 - New-York Mercury Slavery 6
New-York Mercury (May 25, 1767).

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May 25 - New-York Mercury Slavery 7
New-York Mercury (May 25, 1767).

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May 25 - New-York Mercury Slavery 10
New-York Mercury (May 25, 1767).

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May 25 - New-York Mercury Slavery 8
New-York Mercury (May 25, 1767).

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May 25 - New-York Mercury Slavery 9
New-York Mercury (May 25, 1767).

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May 25 - Newport Mercury Slavery 1
Newport Mercury (May 25, 1767).

May 24

What was advertised in a colonial American newspaper 250 years ago this week?

May 24 - 5:21:1767 New-York Journal
Supplement to the New-York Journal (May 21, 1767).

“SUPPEMENT to the NEW-YORK JOURNAL.”

John Holt printed a four-page supplement to accompany the May 21, 1767, issue of the New-York Journal. It included one page of “ARTICLES left out last Week, for Want of Room,” but the remainder of the supplement consisted primarily of advertisements. Almost every issue of the New-York Journal published in April, May, June, and July that year had a corresponding supplement, but the length, size, and purpose of the supplements varied. Sometimes they were mechanisms for delivering advertisements, but on other occasions few, if any, advertisements appeared. In an era when the standard issue for any American newspaper was four pages (created by folding a broadsheet in half) with only occasional supplements, Holt regularly adjusted his publication according to the amount of news and advertising of the week. In so doing, he was responsive to the needs of both readers and advertisers.

The May 21 supplement first caught my eye because of its strange format: two regular columns (as opposed to the usual three) with four short columns that ran perpendicular to the other two. Since I was working with a digitized copy, the size of the sheet was not readily apparent, but, having encountered something similar previously, I suspected that the supplement had been printed on a different size sheet than the regular issues. Consulting an original issue at the American Antiquarian Society confirmed that was indeed the case. The regular issue had been printed on a 9 ½ x 15 ½ sheet with three columns, the supplement on an 8 ¼ x 13 ½ sheet in the configuration described above. All columns measured 2 ¾ inches across. Holt rotated type that had already been set to create the four short columns that ran perpendicular to the rest of the content. For instance, shopkeeper Ennis Graham’s dense and lengthy list-style advertisement was divided into four columns. The printer maximized the amount of content he provided when printing on a smaller sheet.

May 24 - Graham 5:21:1767 New-York Journal
Supplement to the New-York Journal (May 21, 1767).

When I have encountered this trick of the trade in the past, most often it resulted from the printer not having access consistently to paper of the size usually used to publish the newspaper. That does not seem to have been the case in this instance. Sometimes Holt printed the supplement on the smaller sheet, but other times on a sheet the same size as the regular issue. The regular issue always appeared on the larger sheet. Whether on a smaller or larger sheet, sometimes Holt issued a half sheet (two-page) supplement and other times a full sheet (four-page) supplement. Usually the supplement included advertising, but not always. News from England and elsewhere merited immediate publication rather than waiting until the following week.

The supplements that accompanied the New-York Journal in 1767 sometimes had a strange layout because the printer carefully calculated the size of the sheet needed to deliver the content for the week, not because shortages of paper made peculiar layouts necessary. When other newspapers pledged that advertisement omitted would be printed in the next issue, Holt resorted to supplements to disseminate both advertising and the most current news as quickly as possible.

May 23

What was advertised in a colonial American newspaper 250 years ago today?

May 23 - 5:23:1767 Providence Gazette
Providence Gazette (May 23, 1767).

“WILLIAM ROGERS, Of Newport, Rhode-Island … has newly furnished his Shop with a neat Assortment of GOODS.”

In general, eighteenth-century advertisers tended to place notices only in their local newspapers, though members of the book trades sometimes accounted for exceptions as they cooperated with colleagues to create larger markets for promoting and distributing reading materials. What qualified as a local newspaper depended on the perspective of readers and advertisers since newspapers were printed only in slightly more than a dozen cities and towns in 1767. Most publications thus served an extensive hinterland, often an entire colony and sometimes a region that included portions of other colonies as well. The Pennsylvania Gazette, for instance, had subscribers throughout the colony as well as Delaware, Maryland, and New Jersey. In the absence of local newspapers to carry their marketing messages, shopkeepers and others in those colonies sometimes advertised in the Pennsylvania Gazette and the other newspapers printed in Philadelphia but distributed widely.

William Rogers “Of Newport, Rhode-Island, on the Parade opposite the Custom-House” did not want for a local newspaper to carry his advertisements. Samuel Hall published the Newport Mercury from his printing shop on Thames Street. The Mercury was Newport’s only newspaper. This did not, however, prevent Rogers from advertising in multiple publications. He took the rather extraordinary action of injecting himself into the Providence market when he placed an advertisement in the Providence Gazette. Several shopkeepers who advertised regularly in the Gazette (including Thompson and Arnold, Joseph and William Russell, Benjamin and Edward Thurber, and James Green) already competed with each other to gain both attention in the public prints and customers in their shops. Rogers presented the “neat Assortment of GOODS” in his shop as a viable alternative, especially since “he intends to sell as cheap as can be bought at any Shop in PROVIDENCE.” In the course of the week, Rogers’ advertisement appeared in both the Providence Gazette and the Newport Mercury.

Rogers may not have expected to garner many customers from Providence, but he almost certainly aimed to attract readers of the Providence Gazette elsewhere in Rhode Island, especially those who lived between Providence and Newport. Shopkeepers in Providence served the city’s hinterland as well as their neighbors in the city. William Rogers wanted some of that business for himself.

May 22

What was advertised in a colonial American newspaper 250 years ago today?

May 22 - 5:22:1767 New-Hampshire Gazette
New-Hampshire Gazette (May 22, 1767).

Fraught with Entertainment.”

Daniel Fowle and Robert Fowle, the printers of the New-Hampshire Gazette, also sold books that they imported from England or exchanged with other printers in the colonies. Their advertisement filled an entire column and nearly half of another on the final page of the May 22, 1767, issue of the New-Hampshire Gazette. Such lengthy advertisements were not uncommon for printers and booksellers, but the length of this one resulted from an innovative format not featured in most newspaper notices. Printers and booksellers usually followed one of two standard practices when advertising books. Either they provided a list of titles for sale, a catalog of sorts, or they marketed a single volume via lengthy explications of the contents and their practical usefulness for readers.

The Fowles did a little bit of each but more in this advertisement. They included a short list of additional titles at the conclusion, but first they described several books in chatty blurbs that took a very different tone than most advertisements for books inserted in newspapers in the 1760s. The Fowles aimed to entertain readers rather than strictly instruct them (though a heavy dose of instruction was still embedded in their marketing), offering an alternate rationale for why consumers should purchase their wares.

Consider, for example, the description of “The Clandestine Marriage, A COMEDY: As it is acted at the Theatre Royal in Drury Lane.” According to the blurb, the play was “fraught with Entertainment. Some of the Scenes are truly comic, others inculcate the strictest Morality.” It also included a description of the characters, including “the conceited, infirm, and antiquated yet generous Lord Ogleby – the vulgar, money loving Sterling – the sensible Lovewell – the sycophant Canton – the impudent Brush – Mrs. Heidelberg the Dutch Widow, an ignorant Pretender to Quality Mannersthe pert, spiteful Miss Sterling, displaying in reality the modern fine Lady, and the amiable, gentle, and delicate Miss Fanny – who altogether form a Group that must afford greta [sic] Entertainment to every Reader.” In addition, the Epilogue, in particular, was “very remarkable for its Singularity and Humour.”

This shift in tone, telling readers that they would be entertained as well as receive moral instruction, made sense as part of the reading revolution that took place in the eighteenth century. Reading habits experienced a transition from intensive reading of the bible and devotional literature to more extensive reading of works of all sorts for entertainment. The Fowles demonstrate that one mode of reading did not simply replace the other. Instead, they framed several of their books to appeal to whichever purpose their customers wished to achieve in their reading habits.

Slavery Advertisements Published May 22, 1767

These advertisements appeared in colonial American newspapers 250 years ago today.  Daily updates also available on Twitter:  @SlaveAdverts250.

May 22 - New-Hampshire Gazette Slavery 1
New-Hampshire Gazette (May 22, 1767).

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May 22 - South-Carolina and American General Gazette Slavery 1
South-Carolina and American General Gazette (May 22, 1767).

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May 22 - South-Carolina and American General Gazette Slavery 2
South-Carolina and American General Gazette (May 22, 1767).

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May 22 - South-Carolina and American General Gazette Slavery 3
South-Carolina and American General Gazette (May 22, 1767).

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May 22 - South-Carolina and American General Gazette Slavery 4
South-Carolina and American General Gazette (May 22, 1767).

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May 22 - South-Carolina and American General Gazette Slavery 5
South-Carolina and American General Gazette (May 22, 1767).

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May 22 - South-Carolina and American General Gazette Slavery 6
South-Carolina and American General Gazette (May 22, 1767).

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May 22 - South-Carolina and American General Gazette Slavery 7
South-Carolina and American General Gazette (May 22, 1767).

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May 22 - South-Carolina and American General Gazette Slavery 8
South-Carolina and American General Gazette (May 22, 1767).

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May 22 - South-Carolina and American General Gazette Slavery 9
South-Carolina and American General Gazette (May 22, 1767).

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May 22 - South-Carolina and American General Gazette Slavery 10
South-Carolina and American General Gazette (May 22, 1767).

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May 22 - South-Carolina and American General Gazette Slavery 11
South-Carolina and American General Gazette (May 22, 1767).

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May 22 - South-Carolina and American General Gazette Slavery 12
South-Carolina and American General Gazette (May 22, 1767).

May 21

What was advertised in a colonial American newspaper 250 years ago today?

May 21 - 5:21:1767 New-York Gazette Weekly Post-Boy
New-York Gazette: Or, the Weekly Post-Boy (May 21, 1767).

“Such Work as is not executed in the best Manner, he does not expect to be taken.”

Joseph Beck made “all Kinds of Stays for Ladies and Misses” at his shop on Queen Street in New York. In marketing his corsets one of the city’s newspapers, he utilized several of the most common appeals in eighteenth-century advertisements for consumer goods and services. He claimed that his stays were fashionable (“in the newest Taste”) and that potential customers could not find a better deal (“at the lowest Prices”). Like many others in the clothing trades, he also underscored that he had migrated “from LONDON,” establishing a connection to the largest and most cosmopolitan city in the empire.

To distinguish his advertisements from others, Beck added one more element: a guarantee, of sorts, concerning the quality of the stays he made. This testified to the staymaker’s confidence in his own skills and the value of the goods he produced for the market. In a separate nota bene, he advised prospective clients that “Such Work as is not executed in the best Manner, he does not expect to be taken.” Customers not satisfied with the quality of his work had the option from the very start to reject it. Refusing to accept work deemed inferior may not have seemed especially novel to most readers. After all, customers and those who provided services haggled all the time in the regular course of their interactions and transactions. Yet this sort of guarantee was not yet widely stated in advertisements. By including it, Beck further transformed what some might consider a mere announcement into a notice that actively marketed Beck’s services. This advertisement did not simply inform the residents of New York that Beck made and sold women’s stays. Instead, it worked to incite demand along multiple trajectories: fashion, price, connections to London, and, especially, an explicit promise about the quality of the work. Like many other eighteenth-century advertisers, Beck sought to incite demand rather than just reacting to pre-existing consumer desires.