April 12

GUEST CURATOR: Shannon Dewar

What was advertised in a colonial American newspaper 250 years ago today?

Apr 12 - 4:11:1767 Providence Gazette
Providence Gazette (April 11, 1767).

“Pork, Rice, and Indigo”

The Not-So-Bare Necessities! As we can see in this advertisement, newspapers were a prime place for merchants to advertise popular goods. Items ranging from necessary food ingredients, such as flour and rice, all the way to saws and steel were advertised and accessible to customers in the colonies. However, purchasing these items meant more than just having something of worth; purchasing these items sometimes also had added political and social connotations.

The consumer culture seen in this advertisement was present not only in Providence but also throughout the colonies. The historians at Colonial Williamsburg indicate that one of the main contributors to this was the fact that colonists had more money by the middle of the eighteenth century than they previously did. They could then purchase items, such as indigo, as a luxury because they had money left over after purchasing their basic necessities. It was a luxury to have more items, but this also made for a better reputation. If colonists could show that they could purchase things beyond just the necessities, it must mean that they have some form of disposable wealth. However, this could be misleading, especially with the rise of credit, which allowed individuals to purchase items without having the money upfront to pay for them. The rise of the use of credit as well as competition to display status both gave way the purchasing of goods beyond just basics that was part of the consumer revolution.

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ADDITIONAL COMMENTARY: Carl Robert Keyes

For the past several months, the Adverts 250 Project has tracked the relative scarcity of advertising that appeared in the Providence Gazette, compared to newspapers published in other port cities, during the winter of 1766 and 1767. With the arrival of spring, the number and total column space increased, including today’s advertisement from Black and Stewart. This advertisement, however, was not the only notice that Black and Stewart placed in the April 11, 1767, issue of the Providence Gazette. The partners inserted a second notice announcing that they wished to acquire “the best Kind of Hogshead Hoops, Red Oak Hogshead Staves, and Yellow Pine Boards.”

A single advertiser placing two separate notices concerning the exchange of goods or commodities in one issue was relatively rare in the late 1760s, at least as far as those outside the book trades were concerned. Printers frequently filled the pages of their own publications with multiple advertisements, a privilege of operating the press, but merchants, shopkeepers, and others buying and selling goods tended to limit themselves to just one advertisement at a time. Some certainly revised the copy or submitted new advertisements to made sure they always had a presence in the public prints, but usually not multiple notices per issue. A few departed from this general rule, mostly in the major port cities of Boston and Charleston.

That made Black and Stewart’s multiple advertisements all the more notable. In the space of just a couple of months, the Providence Gazette shifted from including virtually no advertising (except notices inserted by the printers) to featuring more than one notice placed by the same advertisers. While the significance of this example should not be exaggerated, it is worth noting that advertisers beyond the largest urban centers adopted a practice previously only identified in major port cities, places where multiple newspapers competed for readers and advertisers. Although newspapers printed in Boston, New York, Philadelphia, and Charleston provide the most plentiful examples of advertising in the 1760s, entrepreneurs in other places also experimented with format and frequency as they developed their own marketing strategies.

January 16

What was advertised in a colonial American newspaper 250 years ago today?

jan-16-1161767-south-carolina-and-american-general-gazette
South-Carolina and American General Gazette (January 16, 1767).

“MANSELL, CORBETT, & Co. HAVE FOR SALE, At their Store in Tradd Street.”

Not much distinguished Mansell, Corbett, and Company’s advertisement from other commercial notices inserted in the same issue of the South-Carolina and American General Gazette. The partners announced that they stocked an interesting combination of women’s shoes, ale (in bottles) from Dorchester, and beer (in barrels) from Philadelphia at their store in Tradd Street. As far as the copy was concerned, Mansell, Corbett, and Company incorporated one aspect that set their advertisement apart from others: they listed a specific price for the shoes, twenty-five shillings per pair.

The shopkeepers may have been fairly conservative in their marketing when it came to making appeals to potential customers, but they did experiment with other methods of attracting notice in the advertising pages of one of their local newspapers. Their advertisement for women’s shoes and Philadelphia beer was not their only contribution to the advertising pages of that issue of the South-Carolina and American General Gazette. They also inserted a separate advertisement that appeared two pages earlier, that one promoting an “ASSORTMENT OF GOODS” that they pledged to “sell very cheap at their new Store in Tradd-street.”

Many eighteenth-century advertisers, especially those who marketed consumer goods and services, ran their advertisements for multiple weeks in order to achieve greater exposure for their businesses. In cities with more than one newspaper, some hedged their bets by placing the same advertisement in multiple publications simultaneously. On the other hand, relatively few colonists who advertised in the 1760s experimented with increasing their exposure by inserting multiple advertisements in a single issue of a newspaper, an iterative method that forced readers to give a business a second consideration even if they skimmed over the first advertisement they encountered.

Given that Mansell, Corbett, and Company described their shop as a “new Store” in the more extensive of their two advertisements, they may have considered this method an effective way of gaining visibility for their endeavor. Whether they were new on the scene in Charleston or had simply moved locations, placing multiple advertisements aided in increasing local awareness of that the partnership sold assorted consumer goods at their shop on Tradd Street.