Summary of Slavery Advertisements Published June 10-16, 1768

These tables indicate how many advertisements for slaves appeared in colonial American newspapers during the week of June 10-16, 1768.

Note:  These tables are as comprehensive as currently digitized sources permit, but they may not be an exhaustive account.  They includes all newspapers that have been digitized and made available via Accessible Archives, Colonial Williamsburg’s Digital Library, and Readex’s America’s Historical Newspapers.  There are several reasons some newspapers may not have been consulted:

  • Issues that are no longer extant;
  • Issues that are extant but have not yet been digitized (including the Pennsylvania Journal); and
  • Newspapers published in a language other than English (including the Wochentliche Philadelphische Staatsbote).

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Slavery Advertisements Published June 10-16, 1768:  By Date

Slavery Adverts Tables 1768 By Date Jun 10

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Slavery Advertisements Published June 10-16, 1768:  By Region

Slavery Adverts Tables 1768 By Region Jun 10

Slavery Advertisements Published June 16, 1768

The Slavery Adverts 250 Project chronicles the role of newspaper advertising in perpetuating slavery in the era of the American Revolution. The project seeks to reveal the ubiquity of slavery in eighteenth-century life from New England to Georgia by republishing advertisements for slaves – for sale, wanted to purchase, runaways, captured fugitives – in daily digests on this site as well as in real time via the @SlaveAdverts250 Twitter feed, utilizing twenty-first-century media to stand in for the print media of the eighteenth century.

The project aims to provide modern audiences with a sense of just how often colonists encountered these advertisements in their daily lives. Enslaved men, women, and children appeared in print somewhere in the colonies almost every single day. Those advertisements served as a constant backdrop for social, cultural, economic, and political life in colonial and revolutionary America. Colonists who did not own slaves were still confronted with slavery as well as invited to maintain the system by purchasing slaves or assisting in the capture of runaways. The frequency of these newspaper advertisements suggests just how embedded slavery was in colonial and revolutionary American culture in everyday interactions beyond the printed page.

These advertisements also testify to the experiences of enslaved men, women, and children, though readers must consider that those experiences have been remediated through descriptions offered by slaveholders rather than the slaves themselves. Often unnamed in the advertisements, enslaved men, women, and children were not invisible or unimportant in early America.

These advertisements appeared in colonial American newspapers 250 years ago today.

Jun 16 - New-York Journal Slavery 1
New-York Journal (June 16, 1768).

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Jun 16 - Pennsylvania Gazette Slavery 1
Pennsylvania Gazette (June 16, 1768).

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Jun 16 - Pennsylvania Gazette Slavery 2
Pennsylvania Gazette (June 16, 1768).

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Jun 16 - Pennsylvania Gazette Supplement Slavery 1
Supplement to the Pennsylvania Gazette (June 16, 1768).

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Jun 16 - Pennsylvania Gazette Supplement Slavery 2
Supplement to the Pennsylvania Gazette (June 16, 1768).

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Jun 16 - Pennsylvania Journal Slavery 1
Pennsylvania Journal (June 16, 1768).

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Jun 16 - Pennsylvania Journal Slavery 2
Pennsylvania Journal (June 16, 1768).

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Jun 16 - Pennsylvania Journal Slavery 3
Pennsylvania Journal (June 16, 1768).

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Jun 16 - Virginia Gazette Purdie and Dixon Slavery 5
Virginia Gazette [Purdie & Dixon] (June 16, 1768).

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Jun 16 - Virginia Gazette Purdie and Dixon Slavery 1
Virginia Gazette [Purdie & Dixon] (June 16, 1768).

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Jun 16 - Virginia Gazette Purdie and Dixon Slavery 6
Virginia Gazette [Purdie & Dixon] (June 16, 1768).

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Jun 16 - Virginia Gazette Purdie and Dixon Slavery 7
Virginia Gazette [Purdie & Dixon] (June 16, 1768).

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Jun 16 - Virginia Gazette Purdie and Dixon Slavery 2
Virginia Gazette [Purdie & Dixon] (June 16, 1768).

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Jun 16 - Virginia Gazette Purdie and Dixon Slavery 3
Virginia Gazette [Purdie & Dixon] (June 16, 1768).

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Jun 16 - Virginia Gazette Purdie and Dixon Slavery 4
Virginia Gazette [Purdie & Dixon] (June 16, 1768).

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Jun 16 - Virginia Gazette Rind Slavery 1
Virginia Gazette [Rind] (June 16, 1768).

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Jun 16 - Virginia Gazette Rind Slavery 2
Virginia Gazette [Rind] (June 16, 1768).

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Jun 16 - Virginia Gazette Rind Slavery 3
Virginia Gazette [Rind] (June 16, 1768).

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Jun 16 - Virginia Gazette Rind Slavery 4
Virginia Gazette [Rind] (June 16, 1768).

June 15

What was advertised in a colonial American newspaper 250 years ago this week?

Jun 15 - 6:14:1768 South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal
Supplement to the South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal (June 14, 1768).

“ALL Person who are anywise indebted to the Estate of JOHN DUTARQUE, deceased, are desired to make payment.”

The “missing” Georgia Gazette from June 15, 1768, presents an opportunity to discuss methodology. Each day the Adverts 250 Project republishes an advertisement originally published in an American newspaper exactly 250 years ago that day, along with a short essay that provides historical context and analysis of the contents of the advertisement. These advertisements are drawn from databases of eighteenth-century newspapers that have been digitized: the Virginia Gazette from Colonial Williamsburg’s Digital Library, newspapers published in Charleston from Accessible Archives’s South Carolina Newspapers, and an extensive array of newspapers from throughout the colonies from Readex’s America’s Historical Newspapers.

If no newspaper was published on a particular day (or if no newspaper published on a particular day has been digitized as part of one of those databases), the Adverts 250 Project instead features an advertisement printed sometime during the previous week. Although colonial printers clustered newspaper publications on Mondays and Thursdays in the late 1760s, at least one newspaper was published somewhere in the colonies on every day of the week except Sundays. This means that usually there is only one day of the week that the Adverts 250 Project needs to feature an advertisement not published exactly 250 years to the day.

The clustering of publications on Mondays and Thursdays means that some days offer many more choices for both newspapers and advertisements. During most weeks, the South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal was the only [extant and digitized] newspaper printed on Tuesdays, the Georgia Gazette was the only newspaper printed on Wednesdays, and the Providence Gazette was the only newspaper printed on Saturdays. As a result, the Adverts 250 Project features an advertisement from each of these publications once a week. During the rest of the week the project draws from among more than a dozen other newspapers, attempting an informal rotation to feature as many as possible.

This methodology causes some newspapers to be featured much more often than others. Even though it carried relatively little advertising compared to some of its counterparts published in the largest port cities, the Georgia Gazette contributes an advertisement to the Adverts 250 Project once a week because it was only newspaper published in the colonies on Wednesdays in the late 1760s. (Dates that fell on Wednesdays in 1768 fall on Fridays in 2018.)

Jun 15 - Georgia Gazette Calendar
This calendar indicates which issues of the Georgia Gazette from 1768 have been digitized for Readex’s America’s Historical Newspapers database.

Today’s advertisement should have come from the Georgia Gazette, but the issue for June 15, 1768, is “missing.” Note the availability of other issues summarized in the calendar provided via Readex’s America’s Historical Newspapers. On closer investigation of some of those other issues it turns out that the June 15 edition is not missing after all. The June 8 edition is numbered 246. June 22 is numbered 247. June 29 is numbered 248, indicating that the June 22 edition is indeed numbered correctly and not the result of the printer or compositor neglecting to advance the number if there had been a June 15 edition (that would have been 247). For whatever reason, printer James Johnston did not issue the Georgia Gazette on June 15, 1768. Despite the noticeable gap in the calendar depicting publication in 1768, complete runs of the Georgia Gazette for that year have been preserved in archives and reproduced via America’s Historical Newspapers.

Rather than examine an advertisement published sometime during the previous week, the not-missing-after-all issue of the Georgia Gazette presents an opportunity to discuss the Advert 250 Project’s methodology in greater detail as well as describe the schedule of publication throughout the colonies in the late 1760s. This should give readers a better sense of why advertisements from some newspapers appear so frequently and advertisements from other newspapers are featured much less often.

June 14

What was advertised in a colonial American newspaper 250 years ago today?

Jun 14 - South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal
South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal (June 14, 1768).

A Catalogue of which will be in our next.”

In advance of an auction of “A COLLECTION of LAW BOOKS” to be held on June 22, 1768, Charles Crouch placed an advertisement in the June 14 edition of the South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal. He attempted to incite enthusiasm by informing potential bidders that the collection included several “valuable Articles; many of which, are now rarely to be found.” Anyone potentially interested would not want to miss this sale since auctions often yielded bargain prices, even for rare items that might otherwise cost significantly more when they exchanged hands through other sorts of transactions.

Crouch did not expect prospective buyers simply to trust his assertions about the value and rarity of the books up for auction in just over a week. Instead, he advised them that “A Catalogue … will be in our next” edition, a promise that Crouch could confidently make since he was the printer of the South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal. Publishing a catalog, whether in a newspaper or as a separate pamphlet or broadside, provided a preview of the auction. It allowed interested parties to contemplate the merchandise in advance; as they anticipated the auction they likely imagined themselves bidding and acquiring some of the items, perhaps increasing the chances they would do so once they found themselves at the auction.

Yet Crouch did not yet direct readers to such visualizations: the list of rare and valuable books would not appear in the newspaper until the following week. He mentioned the catalog, however, as an invitation to potential bidders to peruse the next issue of the South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal, perhaps assuming that their eagerness would make them more inclined to select items that they did indeed wish to buy at the auction. Alternately, he ran the risk that the catalog would merely disappoint some readers if its contents did not include books they considered interesting or particularly valuable or rare. Crouch gambled that mentioning the catalog in advance would make readers more disposed to examining it and attending the auction.

Slavery Advertisements Published June 14, 1768

The Slavery Adverts 250 Project chronicles the role of newspaper advertising in perpetuating slavery in the era of the American Revolution. The project seeks to reveal the ubiquity of slavery in eighteenth-century life from New England to Georgia by republishing advertisements for slaves – for sale, wanted to purchase, runaways, captured fugitives – in daily digests on this site as well as in real time via the @SlaveAdverts250 Twitter feed, utilizing twenty-first-century media to stand in for the print media of the eighteenth century.

The project aims to provide modern audiences with a sense of just how often colonists encountered these advertisements in their daily lives. Enslaved men, women, and children appeared in print somewhere in the colonies almost every single day. Those advertisements served as a constant backdrop for social, cultural, economic, and political life in colonial and revolutionary America. Colonists who did not own slaves were still confronted with slavery as well as invited to maintain the system by purchasing slaves or assisting in the capture of runaways. The frequency of these newspaper advertisements suggests just how embedded slavery was in colonial and revolutionary American culture in everyday interactions beyond the printed page.

These advertisements also testify to the experiences of enslaved men, women, and children, though readers must consider that those experiences have been remediated through descriptions offered by slaveholders rather than the slaves themselves. Often unnamed in the advertisements, enslaved men, women, and children were not invisible or unimportant in early America.

These advertisements appeared in colonial American newspapers 250 years ago today.

Jun 14 - South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal Slavery 1
South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal (June 14, 1768).

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Jun 14 - South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal Slavery 2
South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal (June 14, 1768).

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Jun 14 - South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal Slavery 3
South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal (June 14, 1768).

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Jun 14 - South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal Slavery 4
South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal (June 14, 1768).

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Jun 14 - South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal Slavery 5
South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal (June 14, 1768).

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Jun 14 - South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal Slavery 6
South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal (June 14, 1768).

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Jun 14 - South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal Slavery 7
South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal (June 14, 1768).

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Jun 14 - South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal Slavery 8
South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal (June 14, 1768).

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Jun 14 - South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal Slavery 9
South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal (June 14, 1768).

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Jun 14 - South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal Supplement Slavery 1
Supplement to the South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal (June 14, 1768).

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Jun 14 - South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal Supplement Slavery 2
Supplement to the South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal (June 14, 1768).

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Jun 14 - South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal Supplement Slavery 3
Supplement to the South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal (June 14, 1768).

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Jun 14 - South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal Supplement Slavery 4
Supplement to the South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal (June 14, 1768).

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Jun 14 - South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal Supplement Slavery 5
Supplement to the South-Carolina Gazette and Country Journal (June 14, 1768).

June 13

What was advertised in a colonial American newspaper 250 years ago today?

Jun 13 - 6:13:1768 Boston Post-Boy
Boston Post-Boy (June 13, 1768).

To be Sold by Susanna Renken, At her Shop in Fore-Street.”

Susanna Renken was one of several women who took to the pages of the several newspapers published in Boston to advertise the assortment of seeds she stocked and sold in late winter and early spring in the late 1760s. In February 1768 she commenced this annual ritual among the sisterhood of the city’s seed sellers. Over the course of the next couple of weeks Rebeckah Walker, Bethiah Oliver, Elizabeth Clark, and Lydia Dyar and the appropriately named Elizabeth Greenleaf also inserted their own advertisements. As had been the case in previous years, their notices sometimes comprised entire columns in some newspapers, a nod towards classification in an era when printers and compositors exerted little effort to organize advertisements according to their content or purpose.

Even though some of these female seed sellers indicated that they sold other goods, usually grocery items, most did not intrude in the public prints to promote themselves in the marketplace throughout the rest of the year. They published their advertisements for seeds for a couple of months and then disappeared from the advertising pages until the following year. Susanna Renken was one of the few exceptions to that trend. Her advertisement for seeds concluded with brief mention of her other wares: “ALSO,–English goods, China cups and saucers, to be sold cheap for cash.” Nearly four months later she followed up with a much more extensive advertisement that listed dozens of items available at her shop, an advertisement that replicated those placed by other shopkeepers – male and female – who did not sell seeds (or, at least, did not promote seeds as their primary commodity in other advertisements).

What explains the difference between the strategies adopted by Renken and other female seed sellers? Did Renken better understand the power of advertising than her peers? After all, in addition to being one of the few to place additional notices she was the first to advertise in 1768, suggesting some understanding of being the first to present her name to the public that year. Was she more convinced than the others that advertising yielded a return on her investment that made it profitable to budget for additional notices? Alternately, Renken may have diversified her business more than other female seed sellers. She may have stocked a much more extensive inventory of imported dry goods than competitors who carried primarily seeds and groceries and perhaps a limited number of housewares. If that were the case, Renken may have earned a living as a “she-merchant” throughout the year while other female seed sellers participated almost exclusively in that trade and did not need to advertise during other seasons.

It is impossible to reconstruct the complete story of what distinguished Renken and her entrepreneurial activities from the enterprises of Clark, Dyar, Greenleaf, and other female seed sellers by consulting their advertisements alone. Many of those who trod the streets of Boston in the 1760s, however, would have possessed local knowledge that provided sufficient context for better understanding why Renken inserted addition advertisements and her competitors were silent throughout most of the year, especially if Renken continuously operated a shop with an assortment of merchandise and the others pursued only seasonal work when the time came to distribute seeds to farmers and gardeners.

Slavery Advertisements Published June 13, 1768

The Slavery Adverts 250 Project chronicles the role of newspaper advertising in perpetuating slavery in the era of the American Revolution. The project seeks to reveal the ubiquity of slavery in eighteenth-century life from New England to Georgia by republishing advertisements for slaves – for sale, wanted to purchase, runaways, captured fugitives – in daily digests on this site as well as in real time via the @SlaveAdverts250 Twitter feed, utilizing twenty-first-century media to stand in for the print media of the eighteenth century.

The project aims to provide modern audiences with a sense of just how often colonists encountered these advertisements in their daily lives. Enslaved men, women, and children appeared in print somewhere in the colonies almost every single day. Those advertisements served as a constant backdrop for social, cultural, economic, and political life in colonial and revolutionary America. Colonists who did not own slaves were still confronted with slavery as well as invited to maintain the system by purchasing slaves or assisting in the capture of runaways. The frequency of these newspaper advertisements suggests just how embedded slavery was in colonial and revolutionary American culture in everyday interactions beyond the printed page.

These advertisements also testify to the experiences of enslaved men, women, and children, though readers must consider that those experiences have been remediated through descriptions offered by slaveholders rather than the slaves themselves. Often unnamed in the advertisements, enslaved men, women, and children were not invisible or unimportant in early America.

These advertisements appeared in colonial American newspapers 250 years ago today.

Jun 13 - Boston Evening-Post Slavery 1
Boston Evening-Post (June 13, 1768).

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Jun 13 - Boston Post-Boy Slavery 1
Boston Post-Boy (June 13, 1768).

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Jun 13 - Boston-Gazette Slavery 1
Boston Gazette (June 13, 1768).

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Jun 13 - Boston-Gazette Slavery 2
Boston Gazette (June 13, 1768).

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Jun 13 - Connecticut Courant Slavery 1
Connecticut Courant (June 13, 1768).

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Jun 13 - New-York Gazette Weekly Mercury Slavery 1
New-York Gazette and Weekly Mercury (June 13, 1768).

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Jun 13 - New-York Gazette Weekly Mercury Slavery 2
New-York Gazette and Weekly Mercury (June 13, 1768).

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Jun 13 - New-York Gazette Weekly Mercury Slavery 3
New-York Gazette and Weekly Mercury (June 13, 1768).

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Jun 13 - New-York Gazette Weekly Mercury Slavery 4
New-York Gazette and Weekly Mercury (June 13, 1768).

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Jun 13 - New-York Gazette Weekly Mercury Slavery 5
New-York Gazette and Weekly Mercury (June 13, 1768).

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Jun 13 - New-York Gazette Weekly Mercury Slavery 6
New-York Gazette and Weekly Mercury (June 13, 1768).

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Jun 13 - New-York Gazette Weekly Mercury Slavery 7
New-York Gazette and Weekly Mercury (June 13, 1768).

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Jun 13 - New-York Gazette Weekly Post-Boy Slavery 1
New-York Gazette: Or, the Weekly Post-Boy (June 13, 1768).

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Jun 13 - New-York Gazette Weekly Post-Boy Slavery 2
New-York Gazette: Or, the Weekly Post-Boy (June 13, 1768).

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Jun 13 - Newport Mercury Slavery 1
Newport Mercury (June 13, 1768).

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Jun 13 - South Carolina Gazette Slavery 1
South-Carolina Gazette (June 13, 1768).

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Jun 13 - South Carolina Gazette Slavery 2
South-Carolina Gazette (June 13, 1768).

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Jun 13 - South Carolina Gazette Slavery 3
South-Carolina Gazette (June 13, 1768).

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Jun 13 - South Carolina Gazette Slavery 4
South-Carolina Gazette (June 13, 1768).

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Jun 13 - South Carolina Gazette Slavery 5
Postscript to the South-Carolina Gazette (June 13, 1768).

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Jun 13 - South Carolina Gazette Slavery 6
Postscript to the South-Carolina Gazette (June 13, 1768).